PHYSICAL REPLICATION OF ATOMIC orbitals AND THE 14 vectors s,p,d,f,g orbitals
The two reference pages below are from the book - Chemistry written by Steven S. Zumdahl by D. C. Heath and company 1986. Some wonderful displays of all orbitals in detail at the sites of
Francesco Bennardo ( but for much better views...click on the above 3 links please ) ( or below; as black and white...) |

This identical arrangement of the 14 vectors displayed in the close packing of spheres is duplicated in the orbital manifestations of electrons around an atomic nucleus...and align with these 14 vector directions. s orbitals have 2 vectors p orbitals have 6 vectors d orbitals have 14 vectors f orbitals have 14 vectors g orbitals have 14 vectors ORBITALS and NUCLEAR SHAPE Helium, has two protons and two neutrons that comprise the nucleus, and must form a tetrahedron. What of all the other possible agglomerations of nuclear construction? Mathematically, how would 7, 8 ,9, 10... nucleons appear? The fact that when two or more spheres agglomerate, that they will never form into a true sphere should not be set aside. This is a fundamental problem of the current nuclear concepts. |